Collecting Data & Information:
This session intends to provide viewers with information about the requirements in the collections of data and information about student performance.
The second task in the alternate assessment process is the collection of data and information that will be analyzed and used to determine a student’s achievement level and progress level. This gathering of information must occur 4 – 8 weeks prior to entering any online ratings. Data and information about an individual student must be gathered in order to rate every item in the alternate assessment scale. The various content scales range from 12 items to 24 items.
Who Collects the:
The individuals responsible for collecting data and information is a shared responsibility but must include people who have an established relationship with the student and not someone who would be regarded as a stranger to the student. The student’s special education teacher is the primary rater so it is important this person facilitates the collection of data but others who are knowledgeable about the student, such as a paraprofessional or a speech/language pathologist or even a general education teacher, should participate.
Nature of the :
All data and information collected must be recent, representative, and reliable.
Recent means that data used to rate IEP-linked items must be generated by the student or based on student performance during the 4 – 8 weeks before the online rating. Data used to rate items not linked to the IEP must be generated by the student or based on performances within the past year and must be indicative of the student’s current levels of performance.
Representative data shows multiple data and information sources. This increases the likelihood that the student performances are characteristic of their typical work and not limited to one type of assessment format. If one type of data source is used, then multiple points of data must occur over time to achieve representative data.
Finally, data should be collected over multiple points in time in order to be reliable measures of student performance and is strengthened by using multiple sources.
IEP Linked or Not?:
It is important for special education teachers who are conducting an IAA to review student data and information that will indicate a student’s performance concerning all of the alternate knowledge and skill – both those that are linked to the IEP goals and objectives and those that are not.
If you recall in the first step of the process, alignment of IEP goals and objectives are made to the alternate knowledge and skill items. IEP goals and objectives have to be measurable and have an evaluation procedure as part of the goal. Therefore, the data from goals and objectives must be physically collected and be used in the analyze and ratings of the alternate knowledge and skills that they are aligned with. This may not be the only data that is collected but it is one source and it is already be available. If the IEP goal data is the only source collected, then it is necessary to make sure data is collected at different points over time.
Data and information must also be gathered for the items not linked to the IEP goals but does not need to be physically collected.
Let’s talked about the management of the data and some considerations to keep in mind.
I am going to discuss the types of data sources, collection and documentation requirements, the age of the data, collection strategies, and what to do with the student data for IEP linked items and the items that are not linked.
IEP-linked Sources :
The measurable data from IEP goals and objectives is the best source of data for the IEP linked items.
Work samples are collections that are representative of student performance and can reflect most of the dimensions in the achievement level rubric and the progress level rubric. Often times, work samples will have notes written on them about the level of support that was given or the amount of reteaching that was needed. At least three work samples over time of the knowledge and skill being rated increases the reliability.
Published tests are important sources of data. Student go through evaluations and reevaluations to determine present levels of performance. Such assessments can be useful in making a judgment about a students level of achievement and progress related to an item. A word of caution – a published test may not match standards and may not indicate what a student can do with a prompt.
Observation/data sheets can provide accurate and detailed information. This data can be reliable by observing the skill at least three times over a period of time. This can be accomplished with weekly probes.
Interview/record review can be a valuable source of information. People who are familiar with a student can recall observations and interpretations of the student’s performance levels. Word of caution, information may be biased or less accurate the longer the time between the actual even and the recollection of the event. This type of data could be supported with objective data, like a work sample. A record review can hive a historical picture of student progress that helps validate the most recent data. Again a source of recent, objective data should support the information.
Video/audio tapes show a student demonstrating a level of achievement by providing a clear indication of the type of assistance be given, the need for re-teaching. When using a video or audio recording, practice ahead of time and make sure you capture the desired behaviors. Attend to the environment and background noise. Introduce the video or audio with a brief script of the date and time, setting, objective, and type of instruction. It is also important to use three sessions to verify reliability if no other data source is being used.
IEP-Linked Collection & :
All items that are linked to IEP’s must have the student data and information physically documented and stored for 1 year. This data is also used when second raters are involved in the IAA.
The data and information must be recent, representative, and reliable. Therefore, the collection of data or information needs to be student generated or based on student performance observed at least 4 – 8 weeks before the ratings.
IEP-Linked Collection Strategies:
There are three types of collection strategies that address the recent, representative, and reliable requirements.
One type with 3 data points over 6 – 8 weeks
Two types of sources with data points collected over 2-4 weeks
Multiple types of sources and data points over 4 – 8 weeks
Disposition of Data & Information:
Keep the data collection for one year with the Individual Student Report in the special education file.
Any of the data may be used for an ongoing portfolio
The Individual Student Report for the IAA remains in the special education permanent file.
Not IEP-linked Sources:
Data and information needs to be collected for items not linked to the IEP because they are rated as well.
There are several strategies that may be used to gather information:
Recollection observations may be found in portfolios or a collection of student work that has been saved over time. Sometimes, adults can recall a student demonstrating knowledge and skills. Caution – determining that the recollections are still representative of current performance.
Ongoing classroom learning opportunities occur daily that are not always written in the IEP. This information can be valuable when rating alternate knowledge and skill that are not linked to IEP goals and objectives.
Interviews can be conducted over the phone or face to face, They may range from casual conversations to structured processes. Peer interviews can also be helpful in rating speaking, listening, writing, and reading skills.
Record review is a process of going through the cumulative file of a student and gathering a historical picture of student performance and can be used to rate current achievement levels.
Not IEP-Linked :
Data and information does not have to be formally documented but must be used in considering the ratings of student performance. It is typically acquired informally but is still a very valuable piece of the IAA administration.
Not IEP-Linked :
The data collected needs to be representative of current performance therefore should be generated by the student and based on performance level within the past year.
Again, physical collection of data is not required
Disposition of :
If collected, it may be filed or discarded after ratings are finalized.